All posts by dlang6

Fairy Rings

Type 1 (top), Type 2 (middle) and Type 3 (bottom) fairy rings.
Type 1 (top), Type 2 (middle) and Type 3 (bottom) fairy rings.

What are fairy rings?  Fairy rings are circular areas of abnormal turf growth that are most commonly found on lawns and golf courses where soils have high levels of organic matter, and in areas where trees have recently been removed.  Due to their mysterious, circular appearance, fairy rings have been of interest since ancient times.  According to medieval lore, they were thought to appear after a band of fairies had danced in an area.

What do fairy rings look like?  Fairy rings are rings of grass up to 15 feet in diameter that have a distinctly different color or texture than the grass inside or outside of the ring.  Half- or other partial ring patterns occur as well.  Depending on conditions, grass within fairy rings can be denser, greener, and faster growing, or alternatively browner and drier than surrounding grass.  During wet weather, rings of mushrooms may form at the edge of the discolored grass.

Where do fairy rings come from?  Fairy rings are caused by certain fungi that feed on decaying organic matter (e.g., tree stumps, logs, leaves or roots) buried in the soil.  Growth of fairy ring fungi begins in the center of the ring, expanding outward in a relatively uniform, circular pattern.  Three different types of fairy rings can form depending on soil type, the specific fungus involved, and environmental conditions.  Type 1 fairy rings occur most commonly on golf course putting greens, and occur less commonly on home lawns.  The fungi involved produce compounds that reduce the amount of water that the soil can absorb, leading to drought conditions that cause the grass in the ring to brown and die.  Type 2 fairy ring fungi efficiently decay organic matter releasing nitrogen that promotes lush growth and leads to a dense green ring of grass.  Finally, Type 3 fairy rings have rings of mushrooms that appear during wet periods, particularly in the fall.

What do I do with fairy rings in my lawn?  Fairy rings in home lawns do not typically cause turf death and thus are primarily cosmetic problems.  They often disappear naturally following a change in environmental conditions.  Therefore, waiting for fairy rings to naturally disappear is often the simplest option for management.

If you want to be more proactive in managing fairy rings, consider routine core aeration for your lawn.  Core aeration reduces the buildup of thatch which can harbor fairy ring fungi and make fairy ring development more likely.  If you are having a problem with Type 2 fairy rings, also consider applying a nitrogen fertilizer to the rest of your lawn to green up the surrounding grass to match the color of the fairy rings.  For Type 3 fairy rings, consider hand removing (wearing gloves) or raking up the mushrooms and disposing of them in your garbagethe mushrooms as they may be poisonous.  Finally, DO NOT use fungicides for control, as products labeled for use in managing fairy rings are typically not effective in preventing fairy ring development or reducing the severity of symptoms.

For details on core aeration and proper lawn fertilization rates and timings, see University of Wisconsin-Extension bulletin A3435, “Lawn Maintenance”.

For more information on fairy rings:  Contact your county Extension agent.

Cucumber Mosaic

What is cucumber mosaic?  Cucumber mosaic is a viral disease of worldwide distribution that affects over 1200 plant species.  Hosts include a wide range of fruits, vegetables, herbaceous and woody ornamentals, and weeds.  The disease has perhaps its biggest impact in vegetable production where it can cause significant losses in yield and vegetable quality.

Cumber mosaic on pepper (left) showing yellowing and ring spots, and on broad bean (right) showing mosaic and puckering of leaf tissue. (Photos courtesy of Russ Groves)
Cumber mosaic on pepper (left) showing yellowing and ring spots, and on broad bean (right) showing mosaic and puckering of leaf tissue. (Photos courtesy of Russ Groves)

What does cucumber mosaic look like?  Symptoms of cucumber mosaic can vary widely depending on host species, host variety, and time of infection.  Typical symptoms include stunting of entire plants, mosaic or mottling (i.e., blotchy white, yellow, and light green areas) and ring spots (i.e., ring-like areas of discolored tissue) on leaves and fruits, and a variety of growth distortions such as cupping, puckering and strapping (i.e., elongation and thinning) of leaves as well as warts on fruits.  In extreme situations, parts of an affected plant or even an entire plant may die from the disease.

Where does cucumber mosaic come from?  Cucumber mosaic is caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) which can overwinter in susceptible biennial or perennial weeds, as well as in perennial agricultural crops (e.g., alfalfa) and perennial herbaceous and woody ornamentals.  Seeds and even pollen from certain host plants can carry the virus, and thus the virus can be spread via these plant parts.  More commonly, CMV is spread by aphids [see the University of Wisconsin Garden Facts XHT1043 (“Aphids”) for details on these insect pests] which can pick up the virus from infected plants and transmit it to healthy plants as they feed.  Over 80 species of aphids can potentially transmit CMV.  The severity of cucumber mosaic oftentimes depends on the size and activity of aphid populations in an area, as well as on the number infected plants in an area serving as reservoirs for the virus.

How do I save plants with cucumber mosaic?  There is no known cure for cucumber mosaic.  Infected plants should be removed and destroyed to eliminate the plants as potential reservoirs for the virus (which can subsequently be spread to other nearby healthy plants).  Infected plants can be burned (where allowed by local ordinance), deep buried or hot composted.  Killing infected plants with herbicides can also be an effective management strategy.

Cumber mosaic on hibiscus (left) showing mosaic and puckered leaves, and on bluebell (right) showing mosaic and line patterns. (Photos courtesy of Brian Hudelson)
Cumber mosaic on hibiscus (left) showing mosaic and puckered leaves, and on bluebell (right) showing mosaic and line patterns. (Photos courtesy of Brian Hudelson)

How do I avoid problems with cucumber mosaic in the future?  Buy certified, virus-free seeds and plants.  Consider using CMV-resistant varieties of lettuce, spinach, cucurbits (e.g., cucumber, melon and squash) and other vegetables where available.  Seed catalogs often contain information on CMV resistance that can be useful for variety selection.  Remove weed hosts whenever possible around your garden and mulch vegetable and ornamental gardens to inhibit weed growth.  Consider using floating row covers where possible to prevent aphids from reaching susceptible plants.  DO NOT use insecticides to control aphids because such treatments are unlikely to act fast enough to prevent aphids from transmitting CMV, and may actually stimulate aphids to move and feed more widely, thus leading to increased spread of the virus.

For more information on cucumber mosaic:  Contact your county Extension agent.

Spotted Lanternfly

Spotted lanternfly (SLF) is an invasive planthopper native to China, India, and Vietnam.  It was first detected in the U.S. in Pennsylvania in 2014, most likely arriving up to two years earlier as egg masses on materials imported from China.  As of February 2016, SLF has been confirmed in five Pennsylvania counties, but due to its highly invasive nature, it appears to be spreading rapidly.  SLF has a large host range (in Korea, over 70 plant species have been reported as hosts) and potentially could greatly impact the grape, tree fruit, plant nursery and timber industries in the U.S.

Spotted lanternfly adult (left) and nymph (right). (Photos courtesy of Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture)
Spotted lanternfly adult (left) and nymph (right). (Photos courtesy of Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture)

Appearance:  Adult SLFs are approximately 1 inch long and ½ inch wide when resting.  The insects’ forewings are light brown to grey with black spots at the base and have a grey net-like pattern at the tips.  The hindwings are red with black spots at the base, have white bands near the center, and have a black net-like pattern at the tips.  The heads and legs of SLF adults are black, while their abdomens are yellow with broad black bands.  When resting, adults fold their wings over their bodies and appear light brown to grey with black spots.  Adult female SLFs have a red spot at the tip of their abdomens.  SLF egg masses are 1 to 1½ inches long and ½ to ¾ inches wide, greyish-brown, covered with a grey, waxy coating, and contain 30 to 50 eggs.  First stage immature SLFs (i.e., nymphs) are wingless and black with white spots.  As nymphs mature, they eventually develop red patches, but retain their white spots.

Host Range:  SLF has a wide host range and nymphs appear to feed on leaves and branches of virtually any plant they encounter, often gathering in large numbers.  In the fall, adult SLFs gather in large numbers on tree of heaven/paradise tree, willow, maple, birch, poplar, tulip poplar, ash, oak, grape, apple and stone fruit trees (e.g., cherries and plums).  Tree of heaven/paradise tree (Ailanthus altissima) is a preferred fall feeding host for SLF adults, as well as a preferred mating and egg laying site.  This plant is an invasive species native to China that grows in disturbed sites and along roadsides.  SLF damage on grape, apple and stone fruit trees is of particular concern because these plants are important agricultural crops.

Symptoms and Effects:  SLF adults and nymphs feed on a plant’s phloem (i.e., food conducting tissue), sucking the sap from young stems and leaves, and reducing the plant’s ability to photosynthesize.  Affected plants often have weeping/oozing wounds on their trunks that eventually result in greyish-black discolorations.  Damage can lead to weakened, withered plants, and potentially even plant death.  In addition, SLFs excrete large amounts of honeydew (i.e., sugar-rich feces) which can cover stems and leaves and build up on the ground at the base of plants.  Honeydew can become colonized by sooty mold fungi (see University of Wisconsin-Extension bulletin A2637, “Sooty Mold”, available at http://learningstore.uwex.edu) giving leaves and branches a blackish coating that can further reduce photosynthesis and contribute to plant decline and death.  Oozing sap and honeydew also attract other insects such as wasps, hornets, bees, and ants.

Life Cycle:  SLF has only one generation per year and overwinters as eggs in egg masses.  In the spring and early summer, eggs hatch and SLFs go through four nymphal stages (called instars).  Adults begin to appear in July and August.  Males and females mate multiple times and females can produce one or two egg masses between September through November (or until they die from the onset of winter).  Female SLFs lay egg masses on smooth-barked trunks, branches, and limb bases of medium to large-sized trees, as well as on smooth stone and other natural surfaces, and on man-made items such as yard furniture, cars, trucks, and farm equipment.

A cluster of adult spotted lanternflies on tree of heaven (left), and egg masses of spotted lanternfly covered by waxy deposits (right). (Photos courtesy of Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture)
A cluster of adult spotted lanternflies on tree of heaven (left), and egg masses of spotted lanternfly covered by waxy deposits (right). (Photos courtesy of Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture)

Scouting Suggestions:  SLF adults are poor fliers, but strong jumpers, and prefer to walk.  Nymphs and adults gather in large numbers on host plants and are easy to find at dusk or at night when they migrate up and down tree trunks.  SLFs are harder to find during the day as they tend to stay near the base of the host plants.  Beginning in late April to mid-May, watch for nymphs on smaller plants and vines, and on any new growth on trees and shrubs.  Watch for adult SLFs in late August through September, when they can be found in large numbers.  Sticky tree bands can be helpful for monitoring for young SLFs, but less useful in detecting later stage immature and adult SLFs.  From October through spring, watch for SLF egg masses (which can be very inconspicuous), particularly on tree of heaven.

Control:  To date, SLF has not been found in Wisconsin, and has been found in only five counties in eastern Pennsylvania.  These counties are under quarantine and there is an active monitoring and eradication program underway to prevent the spread of SLF.  Because SLF has great potential to adversely affect the grape, tree fruit, plant nursery, and timber industries, preventing introduction of SLF into Wisconsin is very important.  Accidental movement of egg masses poses the greatest risk for introduction.  Therefore, be sure to watch for egg masses (as well as adults and nymphs) on any item that has come from areas where SLF is established.  If you suspect that you have found SLF, please contact the University of Wisconsin-Madison/Extension Insect Diagnostic Lab at (608) 262-6510, idl@entomology.wisc.edu or http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/insectlab/contact-us/.

For more information on spotted lanternfly:  Contact your county Extension agent or see www.agriculture.pa.gov/Protect/PlantIndustry/spotted_lanternfly/.

Common Leaf Spot of Strawberry

What is common leaf spot?  Common leaf spot of strawberry (also known as Mycosphaerella leaf spot, Ramularia leaf spot, strawberry leaf spot, bird’s-eye spot, gray spotness, and white spot) is a common fungal leaf disease that affects both wild and cultivated strawberries throughout the world.  Common leaf spot was once the most economically important strawberry disease, but the use of resistant strawberry varieties/cultivars and improvements in methods for growing strawberries have been effective in managing the disease and reducing its impact.  Today, the disease is often a cosmetic problem and typically has little impact on yield or fruit quality.

Typical common leaf spot symptoms: tan to gray spots with reddish purple margins. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Patricia McManus, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin)
Typical common leaf spot symptoms: tan to gray spots with reddish purple margins. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Patricia McManus, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin)

What does common leaf spot look like?  Symptoms of common leaf spot can occur on leaves, fruits, berry caps, petioles, and runners.  The most noticeable symptoms of the disease are small, round, necrotic (i.e., dead) spots on strawberry leaves.  Initially, these spots develop on the upper leaf surface and are deep purple to red in color.  The spots eventually develop tan, gray or almost white centers with distinct reddish-purple to brown borders.  During warm, humid weather, uniformly rusty-brown spots without purple margins or light colored centers may develop instead.  Spots can occur on the undersides of the leaves as well, but these spots tend to be less vibrant in color.  As the disease progresses, spots enlarge to ⅛ to ¼ inch in diameter and may merge together, in extreme cases leading to leaf death.  Spots on berry caps, petioles, and runners resemble those produced on upper leaf surfaces.  Shallow, black spots (¼ inch in diameter) may develop on infected fruits, and are often surrounded by brown or black, leathery tissue.

Where does common leaf spot come from?  Common leaf spot is caused by the fungus Mycospharella fragariae, which can enter a garden on infected strawberry plants or via windblown spores from nearby strawberries.  Once introduced into a garden, the fungus is spread predominantly by splashing water from rain or sprinklers used for watering.  M. fragariae is most active when temperatures range from 65°F to 75°F, with periods of high rainfall and humidity.  M. fragariae survives the winter on dead strawberry leaves and other plant parts, and is moved to new foliage in the spring by early season rains.

How do I save strawberry plants with common leaf spot?  Once common leaf spot develops on strawberry plants, the plants cannot be cured.  If the disease is detected early, its development may be slowed using fungicides.  Keep in mind however, that common leaf spot is often merely a cosmetic issue and the use of fungicides may not be warranted.  If you decide that fungicide treatments are needed, select a product that is labeled for use on strawberries and that contains captan, myclobutanil or copper as the active ingredient.  Use copper-containing fungicides only prior to flowering.  If you decide to use a myclobutanil-containing product, alternate applications of this product with applications of a second fungicide containing another active ingredient.  This will help prevent selection of myclobutanil-resistant variants of the common leaf spot pathogen.  Be sure to read and follow all instructions on the label(s) of the fungicide(s) that you select to ensure that you use the product(s) in the safest and most effective manner possible.

How can I prevent common leaf spot in the future?  When establishing your strawberry patch, consider planting resistant strawberry varieties and use certified, disease-free nursery stock.  Examples of resistant varieties include ‘Crimson King’, ‘Earliglow’, ‘Glooscap’, ‘Ogallala’, and ‘Ozark Beauty’.  Plant strawberries in full sunlight, in well-drained soils, and with proper spacing to optimize air circulation and create a drier environment that is less favorable for the common leaf spot pathogen.  See University of Wisconsin bulletin A1597 (“Growing Strawberries in Wisconsin”) available at http://learningstore.uwex.edu for additional details on proper planting.

Once plants are in the ground, avoid overhead watering (i.e., DO NOT use a sprinkler) as this will splash the common leaf spot pathogen from plant to plant, and provide a wet environment that is more favorable for the fungus to infect.  Instead, use a drip or soaker hose for watering.  For similar reasons, DO NOT work in your strawberry patch (e.g., weeding, thinning plants or harvesting fruit) when it is wet; wait until the patch is dry.

For June-bearing strawberries, bed renovation techniques (in particular mowing) can be useful in managing common leaf spot.  See University of Wisconsin bulletin A1597 (mentioned above) for details on proper renovation techniques.  At the end of the growing season, remove strawberry plant debris to minimize sites where the fungus can survive the winter.  Deep bury, burn (where allowed by local ordinance) or hot compost this material.

For more information on common leaf spot of strawberry:  Contact your county Extension agent.

Stinkhorns

What are stinkhorns?  Stinkhorns are mushrooms that are found from the tropics to more temperate regions such as Wisconsin.  They can suddenly appear in mulch, lawns, and areas with bare soil.  These visually-shocking fungi get their common name from their characteristic, unpleasant odor.  Although they are often unwanted additions to home gardens, stinkhorns do not cause plant disease.  Because stinkhorns can grow on dead organic material, they actually are beneficial in that they contribute to the recycling of plant debris into nutrients that improve soil fertility and can be used by garden plants.

Stinkhorns
Stinkhorns come in many shapes and sizes. They produce foul odors and slimes that attract flies. [Photos (clockwise from the upper left) courtesy of Tom Volk (http://TomVolkFungi.net), Ted Geibel, Troy Bartlett and Gloria Schoenholtz]
Stinkhorns Photo 2
In their immature “egg” stage, stinkhorns can be found below ground. Cutting the “eggs” in half, reveals the developing stinkhorn mushroom. [Photo courtesy of Tom Volk (http://TomVolkFungi.net)
What do stinkhorns look like?  Stinkhorns grow into various shapes, but they are best known for looking like horns or penises.  A few species grow several appendages, resulting in an octopus-like appearance.  Some species have a veil attached below the cap that resembles a lacey skirt flowing from the mushroom’s hollow stalk.  Stinkhorns can range in color from white, beige, and olive to bright orange or red with black accents.  The tips of mature stinkhorns are usually coated in a spore-containing slime.  Gardeners often discover immature stinkhorns as they dig in the soil.  The immature forms appear as whitish to pink or purple, egg-shaped masses.  Stinkhorns develop rapidly sometimes growing up to four to six inches per hour, and can generate enough force to break through asphalt.

Where do stinkhorns come from?  Stinkhorns are often first introduced into a garden in organic materials (e.g., soils and mulches) that contain microscopic hyphae (i.e., fungal threads) of stinkhorn fungi.  Once stinkhorns mature, they produce a pungent, off-putting odor that is reminiscent of rotting flesh or dung.  This smell may disgust people, but it attracts insects, particularly flies.  Flies and other insects eat the slimy material at the tips of stinkhorns and carry spores in this slime to new locations as they move around in the environment.  In many ways, this process is comparable to the distribution of pollen by bees (but of course without the more appealing scents associated with most flowers).

How do I control stinkhorns?  Stinkhorns are short-lived and will naturally disappear quite rapidly.  If stinkhorns are too unsightly, if their smell becomes too putrid, if they attract too many insects, or if there is concern about small children or pets eating them, pluck them from the ground and discard them as they appear.  Keep in mind however, that removing stinkhorns will not eradicate them.  Stinkhorn hyphae will remain in the soil or mulch and will eventually produce other stinkhorn mushrooms.  In addition, flies and other insects carrying stinkhorn spores can introduce these fungi to new locations.

How can I prevent problems with stinkhorns in the future?  No fungicide treatments or other methods are available to prevent stinkhorns from appearing in a garden.  Removing organic matter (e.g., mulch) or reducing soil moisture may reduce the number of stinkhorns that appear.  However, these strategies are unlikely to eradicate stinkhorn fungi.  Therefore whenever stinkhorns appear, consider embracing their unique beauty and enjoy their brief time in your garden.

For more information on stinkhorns:  Contact your county Extension agent.

Basil Downy Mildew

Basil Downy Mildew
Leaf curling and yellowing, as well as a gray-purple fuzz on the bottoms of leaves, is typical of basil downy mildew. (Photo courtesy of Debbie Roos)

What is basil downy mildew?  Basil downy mildew is a devastating disease that affects the leaves, branches, and stems of many types of basil (i.e., plants in the genus Ocimum) commonly used for cooking.  Green-leafed varieties of sweet basil are particularly susceptible to the disease, while purple-leafed varieties of basil, Thai basil, lemon basil, and spice basil are less susceptible.  Certain ornamental basils (e.g., hoary basil) appear to be highly resistant to the disease.  Basil downy mildew was first reported in the United States in 2007 and has since spread widely to wherever basil is grown, including Wisconsin.

What does basil downy mildew look like?  Symptoms of basil downy mildew typically develop first on lower leaves, but eventually an entire plant will show symptoms.  Initial symptoms include leaf yellowing (which gardeners often think is due to a nitrogen deficiency) followed by leaf browning.  Affected leaves also curl and wilt, and on the undersides of the leaves, a gray-purple fuzzy material will develop.

Where does basil downy mildew come from?  Basil downy mildew is caused by the fungus-like organism, Peronospora belbahrii.  This pathogen can be easily introduced into a garden each year via contaminated seed, on infected transplants, or via wind-borne spores (technically called sporangia).  Once introduced into a garden the pathogen can spread by wind, by rain splash, or via items (e.g., hands, clothing, garden tools) that come into contact with infected plant and then are used to work with healthy plants.  The pathogen thrives in humid, warm environments and can spread rapidly, decimating an entire basil crop.

How do I save plants with basil downy mildew?  There is no known cure for basil downy mildew.  If you see basil downy mildew, harvest any asymptomatic leaves on infected plants, as well as other healthy basil plants in your garden.  Use these materials immediately (e.g., to make pesto).  Remove and bag any symptomatic plant remains and dispose of this material in your garbage.

How do I avoid problems with basil downy mildew in the future?  Avoid planting sweet basil if possible.  Instead, plant other types of basil that are more resistant to basil downy mildew.  If you decide to grow sweet basil, try growing the variety ‘Eleonora’ which has been bred for at least some resistance to the disease.  If you grow basil from seed, check to see if the seed you are buying has been steam-treated to kill the downy mildew pathogen.  Be aware however, that this information may be difficult to find, because steam treatment of basil seed is relatively new and the use of this technique is not widely advertised (at least to home gardeners).

Whatever type of basil you choose, try to grow your plants in a manner that will keep them as dry as possible, thus creating an environment that is less favorable for the downy mildew pathogen to develop and infect.  Plant basil in a sunny location, space plants as far apart as possible and orient rows in the direction of prevailing winds to promote good airflow and rapid drying of plants when they get wet.  Avoid overhead watering (e.g., with a sprinkler) that will wet leaves and spread the pathogen; instead, use a drip or soaker hose to water.

Use of fungicide treatments to control basil downy mildew is NOT recommended.  Products that currently are available to homeowners, even when applied in the best manner possible, will likely not control the disease adequately, if at all.  Thus using these products would be a waste of time, effort and money.

For more information on basil downy mildew:  Contact your county Extension agent.

September 11, 2015: Wrap-Up, Summary and Evaluation

Listen:

 

  • Host:  Diana Alfuth, Pierce County UW-Extension
  • Introduction (00:25)
  • Roll Call (00:44)
  • County Reports (01:34)
  • Specialists Reports (12:38)
    • PJ Liesch, UW-Madison/Extension Insect Diagnostic Lab
  • Special Guests: Wisconsin Horticulture Update Participants (20:26)
  • Announcements (27:24)
  • Wrap-Up (27:34)

Download the MP3 (6.5 MB)

  • For PC’s, right click on “Download”, select “Save Link As. . .” and choose a location on your computer to save the file.
  • For Mac’s, Ctrl+click on “Download”, select “Save Link As. . .” and choose a location on your computer to save the file

Read:

September 4, 2015: Straw Bale Gardening (and Other Tight Space Gardening Tips)

Listen:

 

  • Host:  Trisha Wagner, Jackson County UW-Extension
  • Introduction (00:25)
  • Roll Call (00:43)
  • County Reports (01:15)
  • Specialists Reports (09:49)
    • PJ Liesch, UW-Madison/Extension Insect Diagnostic Lab
    • Brian Hudelson, UW-Madison/Extension Plant Disease Diagnostics Clinic
  • Special Guest:  Sharon Morrisey, Milwaukee County UW-Extension (18:05)
  • Announcements (51:44)
  • Wrap-Up (52:12)
  • Download the MP3  (11.4 MB)
    • For PC’s, right click on “Download”, select “Save Link As. . .” and choose a location on your computer to save the file.
    • For Mac’s, Ctrl+click on “Download”, select “Save Link As. . .” and choose a location on your computer to save the file

Read:

Learn More:

August 28, 2015: Breeding Tasty Vegetables

Listen:

 

  • Host:  Jane Anklam, Douglas County UW-Extension
  • Introduction (00:25)
  • Roll Call and County Reports (01:09)
  • Specialists Reports (10:23)
    • PJ Liesch, UW-Madison/Extension Insect Diagnostic Lab
    • Brian Hudelson, UW-Madison/Extension Plant Disease Diagnostics Clinic
  • Special Guest:  Julie Dawson, UW-Madison, Department of Horticulture (25:04)
  • Announcements (44:42)
  • Wrap-Up (45:42)
  • Download the MP3  (10.3 MB)
    • For PC’s, right click on “Download”, select “Save Link As. . .” and choose a location on your computer to save the file.
    • For Mac’s, Ctrl+click on “Download”, select “Save Link As. . .” and choose a location on your computer to save the file

Read:

Learn More:

August 21, 2015: Butterfly Gardening

Listen:

 

  • Host:  Barb Larson, Kenosha County UW-Extension
  • Introduction (00:25)
  • Roll Call (00:35)
  • County Reports (01:09)
  • Specialists Reports (05:40)
    • Brian Hudelson, UW-Madison/Extension Plant Disease Diagnostics Clinic
    • PJ Liesch, UW-Madison/Extension Insect Diagnostic Lab
  • Special Guest:  Mark Dwyer, Janesville Rotary Botanical Gardens (20:29)
  • Announcements (45:35)
  • Wrap-Up (45:56)
  • Download the MP3  (11.5 MB)
    • For PC’s, right click on “Download”, select “Save Link As. . .” and choose a location on your computer to save the file.
    • For Mac’s, Ctrl+click on “Download”, select “Save Link As. . .” and choose a location on your computer to save the file

Read:

Learn More: